Over the last two decades there has been a renewed interest in the role of law in development. The major player in the new law and development movement is the World Bank which provides advice on, and funding for, law reform projects. The Bank’s initial foray into law reform issues was through adjustment programmes intended to push back the state from the economy in developing countries in order to liberate markets. Despite the Bank’s claim that adjustment programmes are technical and apolitical, they have a negative impact on the livelihoods of many social groups in the countries implementing them. In the 1990s the Bank has expanded lending for law reform programmes as part of its good governance agenda. It promotes a procedural and institutional version of the rule of law as the most appropriate framework for development. This version emphasizes formal equality and is appropriate for neo-liberal capitalist development. It is unsuitable for other strategies of development which emphasize equity and fairness. The Bank’s legal framework also emphasizes the importance of legal sector institutional reforms. This is based on new institutional economic explanations of the role of law in influencing individual and social behaviour. The relationship between institutions and human conduct is not direct and is complex. As a result of interactions between formal and informal institutions, the impact of formal reforms is difficult to predict.
The IMF and the World Bank
October 9, 2017
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank are institutions in the United Nations system. They share the same goal of raising living standards in their member countries. Their approaches to this goal are complementary, with the IMF focusing on macroeconomic issues and the World Bank concentrating on long-term economic development and poverty reduction.
What are the purposes of the Bretton Woods Institutions?
The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were both created at an international conference convened in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States in July 1944. The goal of the conference was to establish a framework for economic cooperation and development that would lead to a more stable and prosperous global economy. While this goal remains central to both institutions, their work is constantly evolving in response to new economic developments and challenges.
The IMF’s mandate. The IMF promotes international monetary cooperation and provides policy advice and capacity development support to help countries build and maintain strong economies. The IMF also makes loans and helps countries design policy programs to solve balance of payments problems when sufficient financing on affordable terms cannot be obtained to meet net international payments. IMF loans are short and medium term and funded mainly by the pool of quota contributions that its members provide. IMF staff are primarily economists with wide experience in macroeconomic and financial policies.
The World Bank’s mandate. The World Bank promotes long-term economic development and poverty reduction by providing technical and financial support to help countries reform certain sectors or implement specific projects—such as building schools and health centers, providing water and electricity, fighting disease, and protecting the environment. World Bank assistance is generally long term and is funded both by member country contributions and through bond issuance. World Bank staff are often specialists on particular issues, sectors, or techniques.
Framework for cooperation
The IMF and World Bank collaborate regularly and at many levels to assist member countries and work together on several initiatives. In 1989, the terms for their cooperation were set out in a concordat to ensure effective collaboration in areas of shared responsibility.
High-level coordination. During the Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the IMF and the World Bank, Governors consult and present their countries’ views on current issues in international economics and finance. The Boards of Governors decide how to address international economic and financial issues and set priorities for the organizations.
A group of IMF and World Bank Governors also meet as part of the Development Committee, whose meetings coincide with the Spring and Annual Meetings of the IMF and the World Bank. This committee was established in 1974 to advise the two institutions on critical development issues and on the financial resources required to promote economic development in low-income countries.Management consultation. The Managing Director of the IMF and the President of the World Bank meet regularly to consult on major issues. They also issue joint statements and occasionally write joint articles, and have visited several regions and countries together.
Staff collaboration. IMF and Bank staffs collaborate closely on country assistance and policy issues that are relevant for both institutions. The two institutions often conduct country missions in parallel and staff participate in each other’s missions. IMF assessments of a country’s general economic situation and policies provide input to the Bank’s assessments of potential development projects or reforms. Similarly, Bank advice on structural and sectoral reforms is considered by the IMF in its policy advice. The staffs of the two institutions also cooperate on the conditionality involved in their respective lending programs.
The 2007 external review of Bank-Fund collaboration led to a Joint Management Action Plan on World Bank-IMF Collaboration (JMAP) to further enhance the way the two institutions work together. Under the plan, Fund and Bank country teams discuss their country-level work programs, which identify macroeconomic and sectoral issues, the division of labor, and the work needed in the coming year. A review of Bank-Fund Collaboration underscored the importance of these joint country team consultations in enhancing collaboration.
Reducing debt burdens. The IMF and World Bank have also worked together to reduce the external debt burdens of the most heavily indebted poor countries under the HeavilyIndebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI).
They continue to help low-income countries achieve their development goals without creating future debt problems. IMF and Bank staff jointly prepare country debt sustainability analyses under the Debt Sustainability Framework (DSF) developed by the two institutions.
Reducing poverty. In 1999, the IMF and the World Bank launched the Poverty ReductionStrategy Paper (PRSP) approach as a key component in the process leading to debt relief under the HIPC Initiative and an important anchor in concessional lending by the Fund and the Bank. While PRSPs continue to underpin the HIPC Initiative, the World Bank and the IMF adopted in July 2014 and July 2015, respectively, new approaches to country engagement that no longer requires PRSPs. The IMF streamlined its requirement for poverty reductiondocumentation for programs supported under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) or the Policy Support Instrument (PSI).
Setting the stage for the 2030 development agenda. Between 2004 and 2015 the IMF and the Bank jointly published the annual Global Monitoring Report (GMR), which assessed progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In 2015, with the replacement of the MDGs with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) under the 2030 Global Development Agenda, the IMF and the Bank have actively engaged in the global effort to support the Development Agenda. Each institution has committed to new initiatives, within their respective remits, to support member countries in reaching their SDGs. They are also working together to better assist the joint membership, including through enhanced support of stronger tax systems in developing countries, and support of the G-20 Compact with Africa—in collaboration with the African Development Bank—to promote private investment in Africa.
Assessing financial stability. The IMF and the World Bank are also working together to make financial sectors in member countries resilient and well regulated. The Financial SectorAssessment Program (FSAP) was introduced in 1999 to identify the strengths and vulnerabilities of a country's financial system and recommend appropriate policy responses.
More detailed information can be found on the institutions’ websites: www.imf.org and www.worldbank.org.