by Chelsea Lee
When you cannot find the example reference you need in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. Sometimes you will need to combine elements of more than one reference format.
In general, a reference should contain four elements, which you can remember as the four W's: author name ("who"), date of publication ("when"), title of the work ("what"), and publication data ("where"). This is the basic principle behind all APA Style references.
The following series of posts culled from the APA Style archives will take you through the process, and you will be solving your own reference conundrums in no time.
Finally, for an ongoing look at all reference-related posts on the Blog, check out our References category.
Note: This post reproduces some material from our APA Style FAQ
- Chicago: Humanities style citations use footnotes or endnotes, not parenthetical references.
- Write in the 3rd person, not 1st or 2nd. Don't use "I" or "you" or related words in your writing.
- Indent the first line of each note by five spaces.
- Start each note with its corresponding number, a period, and one space.
- For the first footnote or endnote for a source, give the full citation information.
- For subsequent notes, use use the author's name, title, and the page number.
- If you use the same source two or more times in a row, use the abbreviation Ibid., followed by the page number.
To citebooks, check the front pages of the book or the record in the library catalog to find the publication information you need to format the citation. Sample Chicago style format for the first footnote or endnote for a print book:
1. Author's Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Publication Date), Page Numbers.
To cite articles found in our library databases, check the article citation or article information page to find publication information.
Chicago style format
Sample Chicago style format for the first footnote or endnote for an article from one of our library databases:
1. Author's Name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume Number, Issue Number (Date of Publication), Page Numbers, Name of Database, Database Vendor (or persistent/stable URL, accession number or doi).
The 16th edition does not require the date accessed for articles from library databases. You could generally cite an online database journal article similar to a print journal article, but also add the database information, and an accession number or doi.
Library databases may allow you export a citation or to save a citation in a particular format. You can then copy and paste the citation text into your footnote or endnote.
- EBSCO databases, including Academic Search, select the include when saving/sending checkbox and select Chicago/Turabian:Humanities style from the drop-down Citation Format list.
Be sure to check with your instructor and follow requirements for your assignment. Check the formatting and make any necessary corrections.