Space Technology: An Ever Growing Field Essay
From early star gazing through primitive telescopes to t
test rockets to sophisticated
satellites, the human expansion into space is perhaps the most amazing engineering feat
of the 20th century. The development of space technology has thrilled the world,
expanded our knowledge base, and improved our capabilities. Thousand of useful
products and services have resulted from space technology, including medical devices,
improved weather forecasting, and wireless communications.
English scientist Roger Bacon first described the fundamental optical principles of
the telescope in the 13th century. Dutch spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey is credited
with inventing the first telescope in the year 1608, when he discovered that a distant
object appeared to be much closer when viewed through a concave lens and a convex
lens held in front of each other. He mounted the lenses in a tube to make the first
Early telescopes were not used to explore the heavens; rather, they were
employed for military purposes, to detect advancing armies or ships. News of the
telescope's invention spread rapidly through Europe. Glass grinding and polishing
techniques, which had been developed since the 13th century, made it easy for the
telescope design to be constructed and improved. Science historians credit Italian
scientist Galileo with the first use of the telescope for scientific observations of
astronomical objects. In 1609, using a homemade telescope that could magnify objects to
20 times the size seen by the naked eye, Galileo discovered four moons orbiting the
planet Jupiter. By the end of the following year, he had used his telescope to resolve the
Milky Way Galaxy into countless stars, see dark spots on the Sun, and map the face of
A modern astronomical telescope weighs hundreds of tons, yet it is able to swing
smoothly to point at any part of the sky. When a big telescope turns to look at a different
part of the sky, there is a risk that the mirror will sag very slightly under its own weight,
ruining the detail in the image. The bigger the mirror, the brighter and more detailed the
image it forms. That is why most new large astronomical mirrors, unlike previous
designs, are not made from one heavy, solid, self-supporting piece of glass. Like all
mirrors, each consists of just a few ounces of aluminum coated onto a thick glass disk.
This disk is a massive curved mirror, which focuses light onto a detector called a charge-
coupled device, like a lens, it can focus the light that it gathers. But now that the largest
single-piece mirrors are about as big as they can be, astronomers are devising new types
of mirrors for even larger telescopes.
Some of the most recognized telescopes are, ranging from largest to...
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Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic probes and human spaceflight.
While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the early 20th century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries.
Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War. The early era of space exploration was driven by a “Space Race” between the Soviet Union and the United States, the launch of the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, the USSR’s Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957, and the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 craft on 20 July 1969 are often taken as landmarks for this initial period. The Soviet space program achieved many of the first milestones, including the first living being in orbit in 1957, the first human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1) in 1961, the first spacewalk (by Aleksei Leonov) on 18 March 1965, the first automatic landing on another celestial body in 1966, and the launch of the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971.
After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station (ISS).
With the substantial completion of the ISS following STS-133 in March 2011, plans for space exploration by the USA remain in flux. Constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged inadequately funded and unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009. The Obama Administration proposed a revision of Constellation in 2010 to focus on the development of the capability for crewed missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), envisioning extending the operation of the ISS beyond 2020, transferring the development of launch vehicles for human crews from NASA to the private sector, and developing technology to enable missions to beyond LEO, such as Earth/Moon L1, the Moon, Earth/Sun L2, near-earth asteroids, and Phobos or Mars orbit. As of March 2011, the US Senate and House of Representatives are still working towards a compromise NASA funding bill, which will probably terminate Constellation and fund development of a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV).
In the 2000s, the People’s Republic of China initiated a successful manned spaceflight program, while the European Union, Japan, and India have also planned future manned space missions. China, Russia, Japan, and India have advocated manned missions to the Moon during the 21st century, while the European Union has advocated manned missions to both the Moon and Mars during the 21st century.
From the 1990s onwards, private interests began promoting space tourism and then private space exploration of the Moon (see Google Lunar X Prize).