Sociology Chapter 20 Population And Urbanization Essay

Problems:  Global population changes = powerful influence on social, economic and political structures in society  Potential for Source of global conflict o World Hunger o Environmental destruction increases  Primary factors affect population growth o Fertility o Mortality o Migration Key Concepts: Demography: The study of human population (size, composition, distribution of population) Fertility: Actual number of children born to an individual or population - Fertility is declining in the world (number of live births/female) Mortality: Number of deaths that occur in a specific population - Life expectancy is increasing in most of the world - Infant mortality rates have declined worldwide over the last 20 years!!- Many diseases are under control (medication for: tuberculosis, malaria etc….) - Many mortality rates are based on a countries maternal care, nutrition  strong correlation to the health care system in the given country - Life expectancy varies by sex (female > males), ethnicity Migration: Movement of people from one geographic area to another, to change residency

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Prof.Dr. Halit Hami ÖZSociologyCHAPTER 20-POPULATION, URBANIZATION, AND THE ENVIRONMENTProf.Dr. Halit Hami ÖZKafkas Üniversitesi/Kafkas UniversityKars, TurkeySociology-Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey

2 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives
20.1. Demography and Population · Understand demographic measurements like fertility and mortality rates · Describe a variety of demographic theories, such as Malthusian, cornucopian, zero population growth, and demographic transition theories· Be familiar with current population trends and patterns20.2. Urbanization· Describe the process of urbanization in the United States· Understand the function of suburbs, exurbs, and concentric zones· Discuss urbanization from various sociological perspectives20.3. The Environment and Society· Apply the concept of carrying capacity to environmental concerns· Understand the challenges presented by pollution, garbage, e-waste, and toxic hazards· Describe climate change and its importance· Discuss real-world instances of environmental racismDownload for free at

3 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
There used to be a place called Centralia, Pennsylvania.Some current maps might still show the town, which was on Route 61 in the heart of Pennsylvania’s coal region.But many others have removed the defunct town from atlases, despite the fact that there are still a few die-hard residents there.The town incorporated in the 1860s and once had several thousand residents, largely coal workers.But the story of its demise begins a century later, in That year, a trash-burning fire was lit in the pit of the old abandoned coalmine outside of town. The fire moved down the mineshaft and ignited a vein of coal. That fire is still burning.Download for free at

4 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
Of course, some initial efforts were made to put out the fire, both above ground and below.But it continued to burn a few days later. It was put out again, and again it flared up.This is when it traveled down the vein and ignited the coal deposit beneath the ground.For more than 20 years, people tried to extinguish the underground fire, but no matter what they did, it returned.There was little government action, and people had to abandon their homes as toxic gases engulfed the area and sinkholes developed.The situation drew national attention when the ground collapsed under 12-year-old Todd Domboski in 1981.He was in his yard when a sinkhole four feet wide and 150 feet deep opened up beneath him. He clung to exposed tree roots and saved his life; if he had fallen a few feet farther, the heat or carbon monoxide would have killed him instantly.Download for free at

5 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
In 1983, engineers studying the fire concluded that it could burn for another century or more, and could spread over nearly 4,000 acres.At this point, the government offered to “buy out” existing residents, relocating them to nearby towns.A few determined Centralians refused, and they are the only ones who remain.In one field, signs warn people to enter at their own risk, as the ground is hot and unstable.As we examine population, urbanization, and the environment, we will see how these subjects relate to Centralia.Environmental disaster. Abandoned ghost town. A population forced from their homes. Today, the few stalwart residents refuse to leave, but the government owns their homes. And the fire burns on (DeKok 1986Download for free at

6 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
Many of you have seen the 2000 movie, Erin Brokovich, about a legal assistant who spearheads a $300 million lawsuit against a California power company.The story is true, and the town of Hinkley, California, is an example of a cancer cluster, a geographic area with proportionately higher cancer rates (in the Erin Brokovich case caused by a toxin leaked into the groundwater) .It can be very challenging to go up against major governmental or corporate interests, and the Hinkley case is an inspiring example of success; however, the damage wrought on that area’s population cannot be undone.Download for free at

7 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
As the stories of Centralia and Hinkley illustrate, there are important societal issues connected to the environment and how and where people live.Sociologists begin to examine these issues through demography, or the study of population, and how it relates to urbanization, the study of the social, political, and economic relationships in cities.Environmental sociologists look at the study of how humans interact with their environments. Today, as has been the case many times in history, we are at a point of conflict in a number of these areas.The world’s population has recently reached seven million.When will it reach eight million?Can our planet sustain such a population?We generate more trash than ever, from Starbucks cups to obsolete cell phones with toxic chemicals to food waste that could be composted.Where it is all going?Chances are that you are likely unaware of where your trash ends up. And while this problem exists worldwide, trash issues are often more acute in urban areas. Cities and city living create new challenges for both society and the environment. These kinds of interactions between people and places are of critical importance.Download for free at

8 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
How do sociologists study these issues?A functionalist sociologist might focus on the way that all aspects of population, urbanization, and the environment serve as vital and cohesive elements, ensuring the continuing stability of society.A functionalist might study how the growth of the global population encourages emigration and immigration, and how emigration and immigration serve to strengthen ties between nations.Or she might research how migration impacts environmental issues; for example, how have forced migrations, and the resulting changes in a region’s ability to support a new people group, affected both the displaced people and the area of relocation?Another topic a functionalist might research is the way that various urban neighborhoods specialize to serve cultural and financial needs.Download for free at

9 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
A conflict theorist, interested in the creation and reproduction of inequality, might ask how peripheral nations’ lack of family planning impacts the overall population in comparison to core nations that tend to have lower fertility rates?Or, how do inner cities become ghettos, nearly devoid of jobs, education, and other opportunities?A conflict theorist might also study environmental racism and other forms of environmental inequality.For example, looking at Hurricane Katrina, which parts of New Orleans’ society were the most responsive to the evacuation order?Which area was most affected by the flooding? And where (and in what conditions) were people living in those areas housed, both during and before the evacuation?Download for free at

10 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
A symbolic interactionist interested in the day-to- day interaction of groups and individuals might research topics like how family-planning information is presented to and understood by different population groups, how people experience and understand urban life, and what language people use to convince others of the presence (or absence) of global climate change.For example, some politicians wish to present the study of global warming as junk science, and other politicians insist it is a proven factDownload for free at

11 Demography and Population
We recently hit a population milestone of seven billion humans on the earth’s surface.The rapidity with which this happened demonstrated an exponential increase from the time it took to grow from five billion to six billion people. In short, the planet is filling up.How quickly will we go from seven billion to eight billion?How will that population be distributed?Where is population the highest?Where is it slowing down?Where will people live?To explore these questions, we turn to demography, or the study of populations. Three of the most important components affecting the issues above are fertility, mortality, and migration.Download for free at

12 Demography and Population
The fertility rate of a society is a measure noting the number of children born.The fertility number is generally lower than the fecundity number, which measures the potential number of children that could be born to women of childbearing age.Sociologists measure fertility using the crude birthrate (the number of live births per 1,000 people per year).Just as fertility measures childbearing, the mortality rate is a measure of the number of people who die.The crude death rate is a number derived from the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.When analyzed together, fertility and mortality rates help researchers understand the overall growth occurring in a population.Download for free at

13 Demography and Population
Another key element in studying populations is the movement of people into and out of an area.Migration may take the form of immigration, which describes movement into an area to take up permanent residence, or emigration, which refers to movement out of an area to another place of permanent residence.Migration might be voluntary (as when college students study abroad), involuntary (as when Somalians left the drought and famine-stricken portion of their nation to stay in refugee camps), or forced (as when many Native American tribes were removed from the lands they’d lived in for generations).Download for free at

14 Population GrowthChanging fertility, mortality, and migration rates make up the total population composition, a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population.This number can be measured for societies, nations, world regions, or other groups.The population composition includes the sex ratio (the number of men for every hundred women) as well as the population pyramid (a picture of population distribution by sex and age).Download for free at

15 Demographic Theories Malthusian Theory
Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) was an English clergyman who made dire predictions about earth’s ability to sustain its growing population.According to Malthusian theory, three factors would control human population that exceeded the earth’s carrying capacity, or how many people can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources.He identified these factors as war, famine, and disease (Malthus 1798).He termed these “positive checks” because they increased mortality rates, thus keeping the population in check, so to speak.These are countered by “preventative checks,” which also seek to control the population, but by reducing fertility rates; preventive checks include birth control and celibacy.Thinking practically, Malthus saw that people could only produce so much food in a given year, yet the population was increasing at an exponential rate.Eventually, he thought people would run out of food and begin to starve. They would go to war over the increasingly scarce resources, reduce the population to a manageable level, and the cycle would begin anew.Download for free at

16 Malthusian Theory Of course, this has not exactly happened.
The human population has continued to grow long past Malthus’s predictions.So what happened?Why didn’t we die off?There are three reasons that sociologists suggest we continue to expand the population of our planet.First, technological increases in food production have increased both the amount and quality of calories we can produce per person.Second, human ingenuity has developed new medicine to curtail death through disease.Finally, the development and widespread use of contraception and other forms of family planning have decreased the speed at which our population increases.But what about the future? Some still believe that Malthus was correct and that ample resources to support the earth’s population will soon run out.Download for free at

17 Zero Population Growth
A neo-Malthusian researcher named Paul Ehrlich brought Malthus’s predictions into the 20th century.However, according to Ehrlich, it is the environment, not specifically the food supply, that will play a crucial role in the continued health of planet’s population (Ehrlich 1968).His ideas suggest that the human population is moving rapidly toward complete environmental collapse, as privileged people use up or pollute a number of environmental resources, such as water and air.He advocated for a goal of zero population growth (ZPG), in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration.While support for this concept is mixed, it is still considered a possible solution to global overpopulation.Download for free at

18 Cornucopian TheoryOf course, some theories are less focused on the pessimistic hypothesis that the world’s population will meet a detrimental challenge to sustaining itself.Cornucopian theory scoffs at the idea of humans wiping themselves out; it asserts that human ingenuity can resolve any environmental or social issues that develop.As an example, it points to the issue of food supply.If we need more food, the theory contends, agricultural scientists will figure out how to grow it, as they have already been doing for centuries.After all, in this perspective, human ingenuity has been up to the task for thousands of years and there is no reason for that pattern not to continue (Simon 1981).Download for free at

19 Demographic Transition Theory
Whether you believe that we are headed for environmental disaster and the end of human existence as we know it, or you think people will always adapt to changing circumstances, there are clear patterns that can be seen in population growth.Societies develop along a predictable continuum as they evolve from unindustrialized to postindustrial.Demographic transition theory (Caldwell and Caldwell 2006) suggests that future population growth will develop along a predictable four-stage model.Download for free at

20 Demographic Transition Theory
In Stage 1, birth, death, and infant mortality rates are all high, while life expectancy is short. An example of this stage is 1800s America. As countries begin to industrialize, they enterStage 2, where birthrates are higher while infant mortality and the death rates drop. Life expectancy also increases. Afghanistan is currently in this stage.Stage 3 occurs once a society is thoroughly industrialized; birthrates decline, while life expectancy continues to increase. Death rates continue to decrease. Mexico’s population is at this stage.In the final phase, Stage 4, we see the postindustrial era of a society. Birth and death rates are low, people are healthier and live longer, and society enters a phase of population stability. Overall population may even decline. Sweden and the United States are considered Stage 4.Download for free at

21 Current Population Trends
As mentioned earlier, the earth’s population is seven billion.That number might not seem particularly jarring on its own; after all, we all know there are lots of people around.But consider the fact that human population grew very slowly for most of our existence, then doubled in the span of half a century to reach six billion in 1999.And now, just over ten years later, we have added another billion.A look at the graph of projected population indicates that growth is not only going to continue, but it will continue at a rapid rate.Download for free at

22 Current Population Trends
The United Nations Population Fund (2008) categorizes nations as high fertility, intermediate fertility, or low fertility.They anticipate the population growth to triple between and 2100 in high-fertility countries, which are currently concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa.For countries with intermediate fertility rates (the U.S., India, and Mexico all fall into this category), growth is expected to be about 26 percent.And low-fertility countries like China, Australia, and most of Europe will actually see population declines of approximately 20 percent.Download for free at

23 UrbanizationUrbanization is the study of the social, political, and economic relationships in cities, and someone specializing in urban sociology would study those relationships.In some ways, cities can be microcosms of universal human behavior, while in others they provide a unique environment that yields their own brand of human behavior.There is no strict dividing line between rural and urban; rather, there is a continuum where one bleeds into the other.However, once a geographically concentrated population has reached approximately 100,000 people, it typically behaves like a city regardless of what its designation might be.Download for free at

24 The Growth of CitiesAccording to sociologist Gideon Sjoberg (1965), there are three prerequisites for the development of a city.First, good environment with fresh water and a favorable climate; second, advanced technology, which will produce a food surplus to support non-farmers; and third, strong social organization to ensure social stability and a stable economy.Most scholars agree that the first cities were developed somewhere in ancient Mesopotamia, though there are disagreements about exactly where.Most early cities were small by today’s standards, and the largest city at the time was most likely Rome, with about 650,000 inhabitants (Chandler and Fox 1974).The factors limiting the size of ancient cities included lack of adequate sewage control, limited food supply, and immigration restrictions.For example, serfs were tied to the land, and transportation was limited and inefficient. Today, the primary influence on cities’ growth is economic forces. Since the recent economic recession has reduced housing prices, researchers are waiting to see what happens to urban migration patterns in responseDownload for free at

25 Urbanization in the United States
Urbanization in the United States proceeded rapidly during the Industrial Era.As more and more opportunities for work appeared in factories, workers left farms (and the rural communities that housed them) to move to the cities.From mill towns in Massachusetts to tenements in New York, the industrial era saw an influx of poor workers into America’s cities.At various times throughout the country’s history, certain demographic groups, from recent immigrants to post-Civil War southern Blacks, made their way to urban centers to seek a better life in the city.Download for free at

26 Suburbs and ExurbsAs cities grew more crowded, and often more impoverished and costly, more and more people began to migrate back out of them.But instead of returning to rural small towns (like they’d resided in before moving to the city), these people needed close access to the cities for their jobs.In the 1850s, as the urban population greatly expanded and transportation options improved, suburbs developed.Suburbs are the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute in, but far enough away to allow for more space than city living affords.The bucolic suburban landscape of the early 20th century has largely disappeared due to sprawl.Suburban sprawl contributes to traffic congestion, which in turn contributes to commuting time. And commuting times and distances have continued to increase as new suburbs developed farther and farther from city centers. Simultaneously, this dynamic contributed to an exponential increase in natural resource use, like petroleum, which sequentially increased pollution in the form of carbon emissions.Download for free at

27 Suburbs and ExurbsAs the suburbs became more crowded and lost their charm, those who could afford it turned to the exurbs, communities that exist outside the ring of suburbs and are typically populated by even wealthier families who want more space and have the resources to lengthen their commute.Together, the suburbs, exurbs, and metropolitan areas all combine to form a metropolis.New York was the first American megalopolis, a huge urban corridor encompassing multiple cities and their surrounding suburbs.These metropolises use vast quantities of natural resources and are a growing part of the U.S. landscapeDownload for free at

28 Suburbs and ExurbsAs the above feature illustrates, the suburbs also have their share of socio-economic problems.In the U.S., the trend of white flight refers to the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs.This has happened throughout the 20th century—due to causes as diverse as the legal end of racial segregation established by Brown v. Board of Education to the Mariel boatlift of Cubans fleeing Cuba’s Mariel port for Miami.The issue only becomes more complex as time goes on. Current trends include middle- class African-American families following “white flight” patterns out of cities, while affluent whites return to cities that have historically had a black majority.The result is that the issues of race, socio-economics, neighborhoods, and communities remain complicated and challenging.Download for free at

29 Urbanization around the World
As was the case in America, other coronations experienced a growth spurt during the Industrial Era.The development of factories brought people from rural to urban areas, and new technology increased the efficiency of transportation, food production, and food preservation.For example, from the mid-1670s to the early 1900s, London increased its population from 550,000 to 7 million (Old Bailey Proceedings Online 2011).The most recent phenomenon shaping urbanization around the world is the development of postindustrial cities whose economic base depends on service and information rather than the manufacturing of industry.The professional, educated class populates the postindustrial city, and they expect convenient access to culturally based entertainment (libraries, museums, historical downtowns, and the like) uncluttered by factories and the other features of an industrial city.Download for free at

30 Urbanization around the World
Global favorites like New York, London, and Tokyo are all examples of postindustrial cities.As cities evolve from industrial to postindustrial, gentrification becomes more common.The practice of gentrification refers to members of the middle and upper classes entering city areas that have been historically less affluent and renovating properties while the poor urban underclass are forced by resulting price pressures to leave those neighborhoods.This practice is widespread and the lower class is pushed into increasingly decaying portions of the city.Download for free at

31 Theoretical Perspectives on Urbanization
Human ecology is a functionalist field of study that focuses on the relationship between people and their built and natural physical environments (Park 1915).Generally speaking, urban land use and urban population distribution occurs in a predictable pattern once we understand how people relate to their living environment.For example, in the United States, we have a transportation system geared to accommodate individuals and families in the form of interstate highways built for cars.In contrast, most parts of Europe emphasize public transportation such as high-speed rail and commuter lines, as well as walking and bicycling.The challenge for a human ecologist working in American urban planning would be to design landscapes and waterscapes with natural beauty, while also figuring out how to provide for free flowing transport of innumerable vehicles—not to mention parking!Download for free at

32 concentric zone modelThe concentric zone model (Burgess 1925) is perhaps the most famous example of human ecology.This model views a city as a series of concentric circular areas, expanding outward from the center of the city, with various “zones” invading (new categories of people and businesses overrun the edges of nearby zones) and succeeding (after invasion, the new inhabitants repurpose the areas they have invaded and push out the previous inhabitants) adjacent zones.In this model, Zone A, in the heart of the city, is the center of the business and cultural district.Zone B, the concentric circle surrounding the city center, is composed of formerly wealthy homes split into cheap apartments for new immigrant populations; this zone also houses small manufacturers, pawn shops, and other marginal businesses.Zone C consists of the homes of the working class and established ethnic enclaves.Zone D consists of wealthy homes, white-collar workers, and shopping centers.Zone E contains the estates of the upper class (exurbs) and the suburbsDownload for free at

33 concentric zone modelFor example, sociologists Feagin and Parker (1990) suggested three aspects to understanding how political and economic leaders control urban growth.First, economic and political leaders work alongside each other to affect change in urban growth and decline, determining where money flows and how land use is regulated.

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